Real-Time Battery Modeling in HiL Testing of Battery Management Systems

Paul Goossens, Vice President, Engineering Solutions

Demand growth for rechargeable batteries in products such as portable electronic devices, electrified vehicles (EVs) and decentralized power utilities (smart grids) is nothing short of robust. With forecasted annual growth pegged at 8 percent by the Freedonia Group, the global battery market will reach almost $74 billion this year. Rechargeable batteries will account for about 82 percent of that, or $60 billion, according to market researcher Frost & Sullivan.


Energy Density Comparison of Silver-Zinc Button Cells with Rechargeable Li-Ion and Li-Polymer Coin and Miniature Prismatic Cells

Jeff Ortega, Ph.D., Director of Research, ZPower, LLC
Ross Dueber, Ph.D., President and CEO, ZPower, LLC

Silver-zinc batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy (Wh/kg) and energy density (Wh/L) of all rechargeable battery technologies available commercially today. Rechargeable silver-zinc batteries have been successfully used for decades in military and aerospace applications where high energy and power density are required.  The electrochemical reaction involves the oxidation of zinc to zinc oxide and the accompanying reduction of silver(II) oxide to metallic silver. The reaction at the AgO cathode involves a two-step oxidation (1.8 V and 1.5 V) of two water molecules to form hydroxide anions that migrate to the anode where they oxidize the metallic Zn to form the soluble zincate species before precipitation of the zinc oxide. MORE

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